Afdaliah, Ikhfan H. Character education through extracurricular activities of scout (“Pramuka”). An Indonesian experiences

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УДК 37:061.213(594)




Afdaliah, Ikhfan H.

In Indonesia students’ character building has become the state education policy implemented in the national education curriculum. Ministry of Education and Culture has launched the implementation of character building for primary schools up to universities level. Early age character building is required to keep up one’s character not to be changed. Students’ character and morality can be correctly built up and integrated through class subjects and extracurricular activities. The appropriate way to build and develop students’ character is by participating in extracurricular activities in which it is an educational activity to extent their knowledge, improve their skill and internalise the value of religion as well as local, national and global social norms to form a better human being. Scouting is one of those extracurricular activities that are essential to building students’ character. It provides the moral education along with life values for the students. This study examines the role and function of scout activity as students’ extracurricular in providing the moral values for them.

Keywords: moral, education, co-curricular, character, scout, pramuka.





Афдалах, Ихфан Х.

В Индонезии воспитание характера учащихся стало государственной политикой в области образования, осуществляемой в рамках национальной образовательной программы. Министерство образования и культуры осуществляет процесс такого воспитания, начиная с начальных классов и заканчивая университетом. Формирование характера в раннем возрасте необходимо, чтобы поддерживать его неизменность в будущем. Характер и нравственность учащихся могут быть правильно сформированы и развиты в ходе изучения школьных предметов и через внеклассную деятельность. Эффективным способом формирования и развития характера учащихся является их участие во внеклассных мероприятиях, образовательная деятельность которых направлена развитие знаний ученика, повышение его квалификации и усвоение ценностей религии, а также местных, национальных и глобальных социальных норм для формирования лучших качеств личности. Скаутинг является одним из тех внеклассных мероприятий, которые имеют большое значение для формирования характера учащихся. Он обеспечивает нравственное воспитание учеников, наряду с формированием их жизненных ценностей. В данном исследовании рассматривается роль и функция скаутской деятельности как внеклассной работы с учащимися с целью формирования их нравственных ценностей.

Ключевые слова: нравственное, воспитание, внеклассная деятельность, характер, скаут, прамука.



Education is one of the efforts that assist students in improving their knowledge, morality, and values, developing attitude to be more independent, caring about and being responsible to each other [1, p. 7-11; 4; 16; 27]. Scouting is one of the significant extracurricular to build individual’s character and trait. Throughout history, scouting has become one of the significant informal activities that can politically and economically stand. Therefore, its existence is considered the strategic institution of Indonesia that this institution then becomes the strong point in preserving the nation’s identity values [7; 9, p. 269-288; 13]. 

Scouting as the youth action supported by adults is functioning as the educational institution outside the school to guide and develop the teenagers by applying the basic principle of scout education method in which its implementation is adjusted with Indonesian people, condition, significance, and development [15]. The main purpose of this activity is to build one’s character, personality, and nobility so that he will be more faithful, stronger and healthier than he used to be [24; 29].

Scouting is a fun, educational process under the adults’ responsibility. It is implemented in outdoor and outside the school and family education by using the basic principle of scouting. Moreover, scouting refers to young generations who are in passion for working or performing out of the box [20].

Scout education and its values 

Scouting has become one of the facilities in transferring values as well as the other educational institutions. The values contained in scouting activities are: 1) believing in the Almighty God; 2) preserving the nature and loving each other; 3) being devoted to the nation; 4) being disciplined, courageous and loyal; 5) being helpful for one another; 6) being responsible and trustworthy; 7) having purity in mind, words, and actions; 8) being provident, careful and modest; 9) being diligent and skilful [2, p. 12-19; 17, p. 6-8)].

Those values are reflected in the purpose of scouting activities in which to build one’s personality of being faithful, noble, patriotic, law-abiding, disciplined, firm in nation’s values, skilful in life, physically and mentally healthy, and becoming the citizens with the spirit of Pancasila (country’s ideology) who are faithful and obedient to the Republic of Indonesia. A good and useful citizen is the one who can develop his self independently and be responsible for the development of the country as well as care about other people and the environment [8; 11].

In Indonesia, scouting is the compulsory extracurricular for the primary and high school students relevant to the National Education System and Curriculum 2013 [11]. There are two reasons for making scouting the obligatory extracurricular, including: 1) based on the legality in Law No 12 of 2010 on Scouting; 2) scouting teaches some values such as leadership, togetherness, social, nature’s love and independence. Character building is not only implemented in the classroom, but also in extracurricular and co-curricular. Thus, scouting is one of the compulsory extracurricular for the students. It is intended to build one’s character, knowledge, and skill as good Indonesian people.

The methods of scouting in extracurricular activities

Scouting as the extracurricular activities of education is having the function of development, social, re-creative and career preparation [10]. Its implementation as the character builder is conducted through several methods, which are: 1) Learning by doing. It is a method that majorly prioritizes the practical scouting activities in the form of skill education and sharing useful experiences for the students along with directing them to do the real things, motivating them to be more curious about new things, and encouraging them to participate in every activity actively. 2) In the group, cooperative and competitive activities. In the group activities, the students are grouped in action unit led by one of the students as the group leader. This activity provides a learning activity of leading and being led, organizing, being responsible and working cooperatively with others. In addition, it gives the students a chance to compete for each other in brotherhood to grow a desire to become better than ever. 3) Interesting and challenging activities. Scouting is emphasized on the creative, innovative, re-creative and educative activities. Interesting and challenging activities are intended to make that activity able to change the students’ attitude and behaviour, to improve knowledge and experience as well as improve their life skill. “Scouting activities are implemented by concerning the three pillars of scout education which are modern, benefit and principle obedience”. This activity is implemented completely and gradually based on the students’ development individually or in the group. The students’ development is related to their ability, skill, physical and psychology in accordance with their age to make it easy for the acceptance and success of scout education. 4) Outdoor activities. This is a re-creative and educative activity that concerns with the member’s safety and is helpful to give an experience and knowledge about the natural elements and the obligation to preserve them. The outdoor scouting activities are used to develop an attitude of responsibility for the future and nature balance along with providing an understanding of protecting the environment. In the aspect of students’ psychological development, this activity aims to improve the ability to overcome the challenges, realizing that there is no excessive thing in one’s self, finding the fun lifeways in simplicity, and developing the natural sense of belonging [12]. 

The moral values of scouting as the extracurricular activities 


Discipline moral value is the most existential value in scouting in which every activity is prioritizing the discipline of time and attribute [5, p.105-108; 6]. It is in line with Nurul Zuriah (2007) who defines the core value owned by the students is self-discipline such as obedience towards the prevailing norms. Discipline is also including in the scouting values according to Law No 12 of 2010 article 8 and moral provisions of the scout law [19, p. 69].

Self-discipline always exists in scouting activities because it must be owned by the students as one of the fundamental moral values to build students’ personality [25].


It is one of the moral values from the school headmaster and scoutmaster, particularly from the activities in scouting. Independence is the main objective of extracurricular activities, especially scouting [11]. School motivates the students to participate in camping organized by kwaran kalasan (the organizing committee of scouting activities) to ingrain the moral value of self-independence. The students’ self-independence will be trained in every aspect of life so that they will not be dependent on others. This moral value should be provided ever since one’s was born to make him get used to being independent in which self-independence is one of the human’s characteristics with morality. A person who can live independently without depending on others is the kind of individuals who have morality [18].


Camping participated by the students can train them to work cooperatively with all members aside of ingraining the independence value in them. Cooperation value instilled in scouting activity is by giving the students a task. It is similar to Thomas Lickona (2013) who states that cooperation is required to achieve a goal. Cooperation always exists in scouting activities because it must be possessed by the students as one of the important moral values to build students’ personality [16].


Young generation should have a responsibility to become a leader. Through scouting activities, every student is demanded to be responsible for all the given tasks such as picket division by each team at the camp. Responsibility is one of the scout values and laws that must be owned by the students.

Mutual assistance

Mutual assistance in scouting is like a scouting rule. This activity indirectly trains the students to care about other people and help each other. The Scoutmaster teaches the students to have mutual assistance so that this value can be highly achieved. The value of mutual assistance includes in 10 scouting rules that must be applied in their daily life.


To ingrain the honesty value in the students, the scoutmaster gives an attendance list in every meeting signed by the students themselves. Their honesty can be viewed by their attendance in scouting activities led by the scoutmaster. That honesty is in line with the basic moral values for children about being honest with themselves and keeping up the moral values. Honesty always exists in scouting activities because it must be possessed by the students as one of the significant moral values to build students’ personality. Students who have morality are the ones who have the self-honesty.


Tolerance is one of the values taught by the scoutmaster in which the students are also trained to care for others’ feeling. Truthfully, tolerance often exists in scouting activities where all of the students do not differentiate one another. Similarly, some experts claim that tolerance is one of the moral values owned by the students. Michele Borba (2008), for example, notes that tolerance can make students able to appreciate other people's feeling without seeing their tribe, religion, opinion, and capacity. Tolerance always exists in scouting activities because it must be owned by the students as one of the fundamental moral values to build students’ personality [5, p. 105-108].

Students should have the moral values in scouting activities as the basic principle to build their character. Additionally, those nine values have been written in scout values and laws that must be applied in students’ daily life. It is reasonable for the students to apply those values because there is a habitual behaviour in the strategy of the moral value instilling in the primary school students in which that habit is consistently done in their activities. If they break the rule, there will be a warning. Other than that, the exemplary teachers and scoutmaster influence the success of instilling the moral values in scouting activities in the primary schools [22].

How to inculcate moral values in scouting activities in the primary schools

Instilling the moral values in scouting activities is implemented by the scoutmaster through the activities in every meeting [21; 23; 26]. Those activities include: camping; marching; task; game, and cordage.


Camping is one of the scoutmaster’s and school’s efforts to in still the moral values. It trains the students to have morality such as discipline reflected by the activity that demands students to be more disciplined. It also provides the students the way of being independent without depending on their parents. The other value established by participating in camping is cooperation such as working together as a team to set up a tent and participate in the contests [28, p. 479-495].


Marching can instil moral values in the students including discipline of order and attribute, moral values of working cooperatively with the team and being responsible for obeying the order. Through marching, the students are taught to be obedient towards the rules of marching itself, the leader and the order given by the leader. For that reason, if the students are used to obeying all of the rules, they will also get used to obeying the rules in the society.


By giving the students a task, they are required to be responsible for finishing it on time, work together with friends if the task is in group discussion, train them to be honest that the given task is finished by themselves without cheating [3].


Gaming is a simple activity to deliver the moral values taught by the scoutmaster. It can teach the students to work each other to win the games, create a fun atmosphere among scouting members, raise the members’ spirit, obey the games’ rules and be honest in playing the games.


This activity can ingrain the moral value of being disciplined and careful in making the knots, and be responsible for finishing the work. The students, through this activity, are taught to make a strong knot to be used in making a drag-bar for the sick members. It needs cooperation among the members to make a strong knot that is suitable for the drag-bar [23]. 

Those ways of instilling moral values are appropriately implemented as the strategy of instilling moral values in the primary school students. Indoctrination strategy in which the scoutmaster has owned the principal values consistently instilled in the students. The allowed-implement rules are clearly and consistently delivered to the students. If they break the rules, they will be punished without violence. The punishment given to the students is undemanding. However, it is better to ingrain the moral value in scouting with a fun activity and a suitable method for instilling the moral value itself [14]. The prevailing rules are made of fun activities to make students not to be afraid of those rules and to build their characters. On that ground, this can attract the students to participate in school scouting.


Moral education is crucial to be implemented in Indonesia by using varied approaches including moral instilling approach, cognitive moral development, value analysis, value description, value clarification approach, and learning by doing approach. Moral education for the primary school students must be adjusted for their characteristics such as playing around so that the appropriate method to be applied is learning by playing. This method is one of the scout education methods that it acts as a means of transfer of values in delivering the moral values contained in the scout code of honour. Those moral values are summed up in Dwi Darma (two scout moral provisions) and Dasa Darma Pramuka (10 scout laws). On that ground, scout and moral education are in one synergic way to build students’ character and morality. It can also deliver the required moral values to improve one’s life level. The method of scout and moral education in primary school is relatively similar and can be integrated. This kind of education is delivered by learning by playing and learning by doing. By implementing these ways, the students can maximally actualize themselves as the ones who have morality for a better life.



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Data about the authors:

Afdaliah – Master of Management, Senior Lecturer of Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang (Makassar, Indonesia).

Ikhfan Haris – Doctor of Education, Professor of Education Faculty, State University of Gorontalo (Gorontalo, Indonesia).

Сведения об авторах:

Афдалах – магистр управления, старший преподаватель кафедры бухгалтерского учета Государственного политехнического института Уджунг Панданг (Макассар, Индонезия).

Икхфан Харис – доктор педагогических наук, профессор педагогического факультета Государственного университета Горонтало (Горонтало, Индонезия).