Khrul A., Khroul V. Humour in media discourse on religion as a factor of conflict

Humour is located in the sensitive areas of the two basic human freedoms: the freedom of expression and the freedom of belief. The paper is focused on humour in media discourse on religion as a factor of conflict and examines important factors underexposed. According to the results of the pilot project, conducted in Russia, the approaches and attitudes towards humour as a well as a will for compromise and consensus differ in Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Catholic and Protestant communities. Authors suggest the mapping the “zone of mutual responsibility” of journalists and religious leaders will lead to elaborating the “pact on humour” between them. For the future research authors propose to analyse the religious and ethnic factors in the formation of a sense of humour and culture of laughter in general in order to have more detailed picture on strictly religious sensitivity towards humour.

Christensen C.S. The book of Job – the real meaning of justice, faith and evilness? A Bible scripture in the Old Testament about man’s relationship to God, faith, evilness and the meaning of justice

The Book of Job and the story of Joseph, Son of Jacob, are both renowned as some of the greatest masterpieces, not only in the Bible, but also in all of the world literature ever. The text was written down in the sphere of ancient Israel’s perception of culture, religion and understanding of life. However, the Book of Job is one of the most mysterious scriptures in the Bible. Together with the two other Wisdom Books of the Old Testament – Proverbs and the Ecclesiastes – it is a unique text of the fundamental meaning of faith and justice in the Holy Book. In this article, the author tries to analyse some of the most profound theological and philosophical questions raised in the book of Job, by telling the story of Job from the land of Uz in the frame of the culture and religion of ancient Israel. Moreover, the question how the Book of Job is relevant for mankind in our days will be asked. The question will be tried answered through an analysis of the Russian movie “Leviathan” by the director Andrey Zvyagintsev.

Christensen C.S. Atenism – the birth of monotheistic religions in Ancient Egypt around 1350 BC? Akhenaten, Moses, the Sun and the Story of Sinuhe

For more than 75 years, scientists and historians have been working on a theory (of some researchers called a conspiracy theory) that an Egyptian pharaoh invented God more than 3,300 years ago. If the theory would hold water, it could question the foundations of several world religions. Even today in 2018. This article will focus on Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV), his religion Atenism and his motive for the first documented implementation of a monotheistic religion in the world. 1) Was it a political strategy to adopt Aton as the supreme God? 2) Did it influence or even invent the Hebrew Religion? 3) Was it a spiritual vision? 4) Was it to outstrip the powers of the priests of Amon? or 5) Was it close encounters of the fourth degree with aliens from the universe? In addition, the relations between the Hebrew religions, here especially Moses, and the Atenism is of great importance to the analysis and all considerations lead to a possible answer of the question: was it the birth of monotheistic religions in this period of Ancient Egypt’s history?

Пулькин М.В. Провинциальные еврейские общины в XIX – начале ХХ вв.: иудаизм как оплот идентичности

В статье рассмотрены основные закономерности формирования и деятельности иудейских общин в провинциальных городах России. Выявлено, что основой для формирования религиозных общин евреев стали военнослужащие. В дальнейшем численность еврейских общин заметно возросла за счет значительного притока ссыльных и приезда евреев-купцов. Существование еврейских религиозных общин подвергалось детальной законодательной регламентации. В то же время ряд существенных проблем решить не удалось. В частности, крайне затрудненной оказалась подготовка раввинов. Трудности заключались и в сохранении традиционного уклада жизни, родного языка.

Бродецкий А.Е. Этико-ценностные маркеры иудаизма: возможности гуманистической действенности

В статье осмысливается нравственный ресурс мировоззренческих идей иудаизма. Осуществлен анализ антропологических оснований иудейской этики, рассмотрена проблема соотношения в этических ценностях иудаизма исторически унаследованных консервативно-авторитарных элементов и гуманистических импульсов, а также раскрыты толерантизационные возможности культивирования иудейского формата нравственности. Исследование реализовано в рамках методологической установки на синергию гуманистического потенциала религиозной этики различных традиций и актуализации ее социальной и личностно развивающей действенности.