No 2, 2023

Publishing Date: 2023-07-25


Melkov A.S. Within ten years... “Studia Humanitatis” journal in 40 issues: history and modernity 

The fourteenth issue of the International Electronic Scientific Journal “Studia Humanitatis” (2023, No 2) has been published. Since the period of ten years passed after the first issue publication in July 2013 the periodical has made a serious road of development and formation. During this time we have published 859 papers and reviews in history, pedagogy and teaching methodology, politology and law, psychology, theology, philology, philosophy. The main aim of the journal is rendering assistance in the development of humanitarian education and science in Russia and abroad. One of the main purposes of “Studia Humanitatis” is the implementation of scientific knowledge international exchange, cooperation with national and foreign academic and educational centers with the aim of developing further integration in the field of humanitarian studies. The International Electronic Scientific Journal “Studia Humanitatis” is an interactive platform for discussing topical issues related to the development of modern humanities. The periodical is open for intellectual discussions and exchange of opinions among authors on a wide range of scientific problems.


Allaberdyeva L.A. The significance of historical sources of the 10th century in the Khwarazm history study

Arab-Persian historical and geographical works represent one large data set, on the basis of which science builds a historical picture of the countries that were in the Middle Ages in the circle of Arab culture influence. The Arab-Persian geographical literature has preserved a lot of information about the history and ethnography of many countries of the world, collected from merchants, travellers, scientists and other personalities. The information of Arab and Persian authors about Khwarazm is the most important historical source. Khwarazm is rightfully considered as one of the cultural centres of the ancient and medieval East. Various aspects of the socio-economic life of the region are covered in a number of works by Arab and Persian scientists. According to the Arab and Persian sources of the 10th century, the author studies the history of Khwarazm. The heyday of the Arab-Persian classical geographical literature falls on the 9th – 10th centuries. The authors give very accurate descriptions of Khorezm towns and villages, the distances between them, trade routes, various types of handicraft production, exported and imported goods, etc.

Fedchenko O.D. Truso – a medieval city-port on the Vistula

Based on the story of the navigator Wulfstan the article studies the location of Truso city. Along with the historical source “King Alfred’s Orosius”, the achievements of modern researchers from related fields are involved. It has been established that at the time of Wulfstan there was no Elbląg River and Lake Druzno was a bay of the Vistula Lagoon. In addition, linguists found out that the first letter of the hydronym ‘d’ could not turn into ‘t’. Therefore, basing of the studied materials, the author determined the localization of the medieval Truso in the area of the modern Polish city Tczew. It is this point that corresponds to the description of Wulfstan’s route. The etymology of the toponym, which goes back to the Baltic basis, expressed by the archaic term “traušas”, meaning “solid ledge, pier, port”, is considered. Also, the etymology of “Witland” – wetland, “Ilfing” – white, swampy river is disclosed. The proposed article, together with other studies on this issue, allows taking a fresh look at the trade routes of medieval Europe, at the relations of the Slavs, Prussians and Vikings.

Krasinski I.V. Institutionalization of the Lithuanian Council of Lords

The article deals with the problem of the Lithuanian Council of Lords institutionalization on the basis of the analysis of legal documents and everyday office work of the principality. The work used such documents as privilege (law), judicial records, statutes, documents of the Grand Duchy Chancellery (metrics), etc. Special attention is paid to the study of the practical institutionalization of the Council, i.e. its transformation into a real functioning authority. The author examined this process in various aspects, questioned the framework of the Council formation as state power institution adopted in historiography. The author argues for the complexity of institutionalization, which depended on a number of domestic and foreign policy circumstances and factors, as well as the peculiarities of the state system, the political situation, administrative-territorial division, interaction between the central and local political elites of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Krylov I.V. Charity house named after Feodor and Praskovya Sergeevs: history of creation and place in the system of social guardianship of Bezhetsk in the Tver province

This paper describes the largest private charitable initiative in the history of Bezhetsk, a small county town in the northeast of the Tver province. The House of Charity named after F.S. and P.I. Sergeevs, a poorhouse for 50 people with chapel, was opened in 1903. The merchant’s widow Praskovya Ivanovna Sergeeva donated thirty thousand rubles for the construction of a house and inviolable capital of one hundred thousand rubles to ensure its work. The article examines the socio-economic and historical prerequisites for the creation of a charity house named after the Sergeevs, and also evaluates the effectiveness of this charitable project in solving the problems of social guardianship of a small town. The issues of organization, management and functioning of the charity house and the role of inviolable target capital in its provision are studied in detail.

Christensen C.S. The German cruiser fleet (1890-1940) and the consequences of the sinking of the heavy cruiser “Blücher III” on April 9, 1940 near Oslo

The Battle of Drøbak Sound took place the northernmost part of the outer Oslofjord in southern Norway on April 9, 1940. It actually marked the beginning of World War 2 in Western Europe. A German fleet led by the heavy cruiser “Blücher III” of the Admiral-Hipper-class was dispatched up the Oslofjord to begin the German invasion of Norway, with the objective of seizing Oslo. The sinking of the heavy cruiser “Blücher III” was the very symbol of Norwegian resistance for the following five years. The cruiser, which was one of the most important warships in the German fleet, was a true well-developed war machine in the spirit of the First World War, but the ship’s supremacy, modernity and striking power were stopped and defeated by Colonel Birger Eriksen – the commander of the fortress Oscarsborg. Through the histories of the three warships named “Blücher” (I, II, III) we will analyse the theory that the sinking of “Blücher III” was not only the end of this heavy cruiser, but also the end of cruisers in the German naval history. In other words, it wasn’t just a ship that sank on cold April morning 1940, but it was also the end of the heavy cruiser’ long evolution as one of the German Navy’s most murderous weapon.

Geraly Z. History and tourism: current perspectives

This article examines contemporary historical research exploring the links between tourism and the transmission of historical information. Recent studies of historical methodology have begun to draw attention to the effects of adapting historical knowledge and identity formation in the course of tourism activities. With the popularisation of mass tourism, this channel has also become an effective tool for the governments and academia to promote historical concepts, historical data and build public knowledge about their own past. In this article the author summarises how scientific research on tourism has developed up to the present days.


Gerashchenko I.G. Types of globalism in historical development

The purpose of this article is to examine historical and contemporary forms of globalism. The following historical forms of globalism are analysed: the first global military takeovers, Christianity, communist globalism, fascism, liberal-market globalism. The author concludes that the liberal-market unipolar world is the last historical form of globalization. There is a clear trend towards a multipolar world community, in which no country, no matter how powerful it is, can impose its will on other states.

Shevchenko I.A. Media rhetoric of historical video games in Russian youth life and national security of the country

The article analyses the phenomenon of historical video games and their influence on the formation of the world picture and ideas about the past among the younger generation. According to sociological surveys computer games are widely distributed among young people of different ages, while they are not only part of the entertainment industry, but also the strongest mean of broadcasting the values and behavioural attitudes and often knowledge (including false) about the world and the past. In this regard, it seems necessary to conduct a state policy to ensure the control of the video game sphere, which is an instrument of the “soft power” in the conditions of the modern global world.


Pulkin M.V. Religious life of a provincial town in the 18th – early 20th centuries (based on the materials of the Olonets diocese)

The article discusses the main patterns of religious life of the Olonets diocese towns over a long and significant period of Church history. It was revealed that due to the difference in historical destinies, the towns of the Olonets diocese had significant specific features in religious terms. Along with towns with a long ecclesiastical history, there were settlements in which religious life had obvious similarities with the rural way of parish life. Petrozavodsk played a special role in the confessional history of the region having a relatively stable financial situation, and for a long time being the location of the Cathedral and the main spiritual educational institution of the diocese.

Walczak D. “Antiques”: forgery of ancient icons in Russia in the 19th and early 20th centuries

This article describes such an unprecedented phenomenon of Russian icon painting in the 19th and early 20th centuries like mass forgery of ancient icons with the aim of their subsequent sale to believers or collectors. This craft has been developing in different villages of the Vladimir province since the 18th century and initially implies the presence of a well-established system of old-style icon painters (“starinshchiki”) and wandering icon dealers (“ofenees”). The author reveals the underlying causes of this phenomenon, describes the main ways of forging ancient icons and analyses the artistic means that were used by icon painters to stylize “antique”. A connection is established between the Old Believer type of piety and the fashion for antiquity and the increase in demand for “ancient” icons, and thereby the development of the craft of “starinshchiki”.

Khroul V. Religious factor during the Covid-19 pandemic in Russia and Belarus

In times of social turbulence and non-linear historical development, the religious factor plays a special role. The paper is focused on the activities of religious structures in Russia and Belarus during the Covid-19 pandemic. Preliminary results of the still ongoing research show that despite diametrically opposed strategies of fighting infection (radically strict in Russia and extremely liberal in Belarus), religious organizations in both countries acted as loyal and disciplined allies of the authorities in calling for obedience to government decisions and opposing conspiracy theories and dissident anti-vaccination activist movements. In addition, the need to conduct services online has provided a significant impetus for the use of new digital technologies in predominantly conservative religious practices.


Ashrapov B.P. Comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and level of comparative degree of adjective usage in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th – 20th centuries

The article discusses the issues of comparative analysis of morphological peculiarities and level of comparative degree usage of adjectives in the Tajik literary language referring to the 18th – 20th centuries on the example of the historical productions. It is noted that in the Tajik literary language comparatives and superlatives are expressed in two ways: synthetic and analytical, and the theme explored is of a long history and passed various periods and evolution throughout its historical development. The author comes to the conclusion that in the Tajik literary language of the 18th – 20th centuries the comparative degree of adjective is evinced analytically, namely, comparison is made in such a way that congruent objects are present including the original adjective by virtue of prepositions (especially with the preposition аз-). Comparative adjective are formed by dint of the suffix -тар in the language of the compared historical productions; in general it has some common and distinctive features.

Kayumova Z.S. Zulaikha’s image in the “Tafsir Tabari” translation and its reflection in Persian-Tajik poetry from the 10th to the 12th centuries

The article dwells on the study of Zulaikha’s image in the “Tafsir Tabari” translation and its reflection in Persian-Tajik poetry from the 10th to the 12th centuries. It is noted that the studied subject has a great importance in the literature; it is devoted to a person who is the embodiment of chastity, love and knowledge. In Quranic legends and commentaries Zulaikha’s image as a wife of the Egypt ruler is also depicted in various guises. At first, she appears in the image of a lustful and frivolous woman, then, especially at the end of the Persian-Tajik literature narratives, Zulaikha admits her sins and becomes a pious and virtuous woman.

Yusifova I.A. Written and oral evidence of natural phenomena in Azerbaijani folklore

Natural phenomena such as floods, earthquakes and lightning were understood by people in a mythological sense in the primitive worldview, and the causes of their occurrence are linked to divine existence. People’s views on these terrible natural phenomena have been preserved in written and oral texts and have taken an important place in Azerbaijani folklore. In this paper the author has researched and analysed evidence of formidable natural phenomena in folk art.

Nikishov Y.M. Chatsky and Onegin. Part II

Alexander Herzen called Chatsky and Onegin, heroes of the new Russian literature, brothers. Usually there are both similarities and differences between brothers. In modern literary studies this problem has not been considered in detail yet. The author makes significant clarifications in the understanding of the characters which is facilitated by the understanding of the creative history and the direction of the ideological searches of Griboyedov and Pushkin. In the novel Onegin is shown as a man of the near-Decembrists circle and the final position of “The Fragments” of his journey predicts to the hero the fate of the “superfluous man”. But the finales of both works are open, leaving the choice for the heroes.

Safron E.A. The image of the North sweetheart as one of the sensitive dominants of the Silver Age lyrics (on the example of the poems by Alexander Blok and Igor Severyanin)

The article examines whether the image of the North sweetheart functions in the texts of A. Blok’s poem “In the Attic” and I. Severyanin’s poems “Estland poetry” and “The tale of Ingrid”. The author proceeds from the idea that the North, despite the semantic dominant due to cold and freezing, in the works of the Silver Age poets embodies the dream of the life freed from the problems of the time in which they had to live in. Accordingly, the female image, determined by the semantics of the North, is associated with the aspirations of poets, but remains inaccessible. It turns out that, despite the different ways of depicting the heroes, the poets use common themes and motives: the theme of love and death, the theme of beauty, the motives of threat, betrayal.

Adishirinov K.F. Drama and satiric prose by Lutfali Hasanov

The article studies drama and prose by Lutfali Hasanov who wrote and created works in Sheki literary atmosphere during the 40-70s of the 20th century and led the literary council of “Sabuhi” for a long time. The ideological relevance of the plays such as “Unsupported man”, “In the land of brother”, “Death to death”, “Chief physician”, “The sun” and his stories “Troubled man”, “Deputy manager, “The request”, “Love for the son”, “Zerrintac” and etc. is obvious. Such qualities of the writer as patriotism, mortality, humanism, spiritual purity, honesty, truthfulness, hatred of war attract the reader. The powerful representative of Azerbaijan and world poetry, a close friend of the writer Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh highly appreciated L. Hasanov’s works from the point of view of artistic peculiarity, ideological and compositional integrity.


Markov A.V. Ways of problems: Sergey Averintsev between analytic and continental philosophy

Despite Sergey Averintsev’s belonging to the hermeneutic tradition, radically transformed for the purpose of religious-philosophical generalizations and a general critique of language and culture, a number of provisions of this critique in scientist’s final works are close to analytic philosophy rather than continental philosophy. A number of parallels are established between Averintsev’s position in distinguishing between poetry and prose genres in a dynamic and ambiguous system of literary production and that of A. Lovejoy, who criticized the Hegelian tradition for introducing new speech genres. Averintsev also admits the continental tradition of genre production as part of literary and intellectual life, while believing that self-identified classical genres can be described in roughly the same way that continental philosophy describes everyday language. But a radical critique of everyday language, based on religious-philosophical presumptions, demands that literary everyday life be recognized as the privilege of an alternative epistemology, inscribing new genres in the epistemological quest of continental philosophy and endorsing its radical moments.